Age Related Macular Degeneration is the number one cause of vision loss in patients over 60 years of age. Macular degeneration begins as the dry type. It results in distortion and gradual loss of central vision. As the disease process progresses, it may develop into the wet type. The wet type of macular degeneration is usually associated with sudden onset of central vision loss. The wet type is usually associated with leakage or bleeding in the macula. Prompt treatment will usually slow and sometimes reverse vision loss.
Diabetic Retinopathy is the number one cause of vision loss in patients under 60 years of age. Vision loss most commonly occurs when macular edema develops. This is usually the result of leaky vessels which deposit lipid and protein in the fovea. The edema can also causes structural damage to the photoreceptors. Vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment can also cause vision loss in advance diabetic retinopathy. This process is caused by abnormal formation of new blood vessel, which can bleed into the eye and form scars or traction on the retina. Thus result in hemorrhage, retinal detachment and progressive vision loss.
A macular hole is most commonly the result of vitreous detachment and tangential traction from epiretinal membrane. It may result in a central blind spot if left untreated. It may be corrected successfully with the use of modern vitreoretinal surgical technique.
A epiretinal membrane may cause distortion in central vision. It may also cause edema in the macula. It can be idiopathic or the result of diabetes retinopathy and retinal detachment. Successful surgical intervention may minimize distortion, and reduce further vision loss.
Myopic degeneration is associated with advanced nearsightedness, which may result in scar formation in the macula. It can also result in abnormal vessel formation similar to wet type of age related macular degeneration. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may prevent vision loss.